Text by Jeff Toorish

Photos by Curt Bowen, Jeff Toorish, Alan Studley, Jon Bojar


The Sea of Cortez goes by many names; locals prefer Sea of Cortês, in Spanish it is called Mar Bermejo, and to others it is known as the Sea of California. It is the narrow body of water between the Baja California peninsula and the main isthmus of Mexico. It is also one of the most beautiful places on Earth, with unique diving and spectacular wildlife.

A team of Advanced Diver Magazine photographers and explorers assembled for an unprecedented expedition to the Sea of Cortez in September 2008. In addition to ADM team members Curt Bowen, Jeff Toorish, Alan Studley, Jon Bojar, and Kim Smith, there were an additional fourteen divers aboard the Don Jose dive boat out of La Paz, Mexico. Normally, the Don Jose hosts sixteen open circuit divers, but this would be a rebreather-only trip, and there would be a whopping nineteen rebreather divers aboard. Space was tight, but the caliber of the divers allowed for smooth sailing for the six days of the expedition.

The dive team assembled from around the world, including Great Britain, Canada, the U.S., and Hong Kong, as well as locally near La Paz. KISS rebreathers were the most common aboard, but there were also rEvo, Megladon, Inspiration, and Nautilus CCR units. Remarkably, divers encountered very minimal equipment problems, and not a single diver had to resort to open circuit during the entire trip.


Scientists believe that the Sea of Cortez opened up about five million years ago, give or take a few hundred thousand years. Its surface area is roughly 62,000 square miles. Several rivers end their journeys in the Sea of Cortez, including the Colorado, Fuerte, Sonora, and Yaqui.

The mountains that border the two sides of the Sea of Cortez are clearly tectonic, and provide a breathtaking sense of the power that created this gulf. It is probable that its waters would have flooded the Mexicali and Imperial valleys had the massive Colorado River delta not blocked the sea from progressing further.

Most of our team flew into the airport that serves Cabo San Lucas and nearby Los Cabos; from there, we used two large vans to carry our many boxes of gear to La Paz, where we would pick up the Don Jose, the dive boat we would call home for the next six days. 


Above: A massive school of fish encircle the Kiss rebreather diver

Below: A lone seal soaking up the sun's rays shows his dislike in the divers for disturbing his rest.


The Tropics

La Paz is the capital of Baja Sur (the southern Baja state), and a beautiful, rustic seaside town. It has grown because of the tourist industry but keeps many of its natural elements, giving visitors a more accurate view of life in this part of Mexico. Cabo San Lucas had a reputation as the more gritty place in Baja, known as a top surfing spot. Some team members spent a night or two in Cabo San Lucas and discovered firsthand the intensity of the waves, with an undertow so great that people walking on the beach had to stay far away from the water lest an errant wave literally pull them in. Even after a night at Sammy Hagar’s Cabo Wabo bar and several shots of tequila, no one thought it prudent to try a swim in the roiling waters.

The drive from Cabo to La Paz showed the Baja countryside vibrant green, thanks to recent rains. While normally it was a classic scrub desert, brown and gray and uninviting, it was far more lush during our visit, with some cacti flowering. The two-hour drive crossed the Tropic of Cancer and required more pit stops than normal because of the consumption of cerveza by team members–and we probably don’t need to talk any more about that.

Once in La Paz, the truly enormous amount of gear was stowed aboard the Don Jose in short, efficient order, a quick dinner in town, and a return to the boat for an early night. The next few days were going to be busy and adventure filled, and everyone understood the need for a good night’s sleep.


Above: The 80-foot vessel, the Don Jose, is the dive platform for the week long dive expedition.

Below: A small seal inspects his reflection in the camera’s dome port.


Baja Expeditions operate the Don Jose, an 80-foot vessel that was built in 1978 and offers relatively comfortable quarters and a steady ride. No roughing it here. The cabins are comfortably air-conditioned at night, and the food was nothing short of superb. The cooking staff even prepared special meals for the non-meat eaters aboard. Captain Jose Lozano has been with the ship since the beginning, rising to take command with a firm, quiet authority.

The Dive Master for the week would be Peter C. Schalkwijk, and the team could not have asked for a more professional leader. Peter handled every problem and issue with humor, grace, and style, ensuring an expedition with no on-board drama. 

On September 22nd, as the sun came up over the nearby mountains casting a golden hue over the town of La Paz, the Don Jose cast off and the adventure truly began. One of the benefits of diving in the Sea of Cortez is the relatively short distances between dive sites. It would not take long, steaming at a moderate speed, to reach our first dive site – a reef called Suani (pronounced swanee) for a shakeout dive. 


Above: Strong tide and wave currents flow over the rocky submerged terrain, creating a thriving marine ecosystem.

Below: KISS Rebreather Diver, Kim Smith poses by a rock covered with large starfish.


The hopes of the team were to photograph large sea animals, such as hammerheads, whale sharks, and perhaps some giant rays. As with any dive trip, nothing is guaranteed; but, if nothing else, divers are an optimistic group. There was no thought of seeing anything particularly large at Suani, but the reef was teeming with schooling silver fish, curious puffers, and colorful nudibranch. 

Each dive saw an array of rebreathers, camera, and video gear enter the water via the dive platform on the stern of the Don Jose.  The crew had an astonishing ability to match up each diver with his or her various pieces of equipment after only a couple of dives, something that never failed to amaze.

The Right People And Places

Speaking from experience, there is no doubt that even one difficult person on an expedition can have a hugely negative impact on the overall dynamic of the team. Negativity has no place on a dive trip, especially one involving a lot of technical divers with all that gear in the confines of a boat at sea. Fortunately, no such stress occurred on this voyage; every diver was experienced, adept, and positive. There was a great deal of sharing of equipment when necessary, and plenty of pitching in to help when help was needed.

Peter Piemonte summed it up perfectly: "Combine agreeable companionship, a fine vessel and crew with warm clear waters, and you have the 2008 Advanced Diver Magazine trip to the Sea of Cortez. A great trip that I was glad to be a part of."

For the next five days, the Don Jose steamed across the Sea of Cortez, taking the dive team to exotic sounding places with names like Los Islotes (Small Island) where we learned that seals, while playful, are also extremely territorial. At Los Islotes, the seals have a very strong hierarchy, and the dominant males are incredibly protective of their females and pups (as ADM photographer/explorer Jon Bojar discovered when he got a little too close to a seal home).


Above: A large Bull Seal stands between the divers and he’s calves laying on the shoreline.

Below: CCR diver, Kim Smith meets up with a large seal as she swims through some underwater tunnels.


Los Islotes is one of the most famous dives in the Sea of Cortez, and with good reason. Divers have the opportunity to observe seal behavior in proximity, both on the surface and below. 

The next day, we traveled to El Baho (The Sea Mount). This dive featured three pinnacles where hammerhead sharks sometimes gather. As rebreather divers, we have a greater chance to see the elusively shy hammerheads because we don’t produce the bubbles that are known to scare them away. Unfortunately, on this day no hammerheads were visiting El Baho, although several dive boats with open circuit divers were — along with their bubbles! (To paraphrase Shakespeare’s Lady Macbeth, “Out, damn’d bubbles, out I say!”)

Even without the hammerheads, El Baho was a fascinating dive with a great deal of fish life, and moray eels seemingly in every crack and crevice. Many of the morays appeared to be huge; and, in some cases, there were two in the same hole, making them appear as one eel with two heads. 

Other dive locations we visited: Los Puntos (Sea Lions); Bajo Reina, where we encountered a kicking current and found four anchors, one with about 40 feet of line still attached; and an interesting wreck that offered excellent exploration opportunities. What we did not manage to see were the large animals that are sometimes prevalent in the Sea of Cortez. 

While that was our objective, as it turned out, because of the spectacular dives and excellent company, the diving itself was a success, as diver Garry Gressett put it so eloquently: 

"A wonderful trip that can be remembered for years to come.  I went expecting to see big mantas, but found a big digital camera with all the attachments instead --sparking my sudden interest in photography.  It's amazing to start a new hobby with advice from the best underwater photographers in the world.  Thanks, guys, and safe diving!" 

Other members of the dive team: Bob and Amy Ferguson, Brian Hackett, Patrick Vigeant, Andy Higgie, Robb Witt, Andy Niven, Casey Omholt, German Yanez, and Padro Cervantes.

Special thanks to the crew of the Don Jose: Engineer Hernan Parra,

Chef Benito Leon, Assistant Chef Orion Flores, skiff driver Felix Higuera, skiff driver Antonio Orozco, deck hand Juan Alejandro Lucero.

Other Photos (Click on image to enlarge)
Baja Underwater Expeditions (click to visit)